5. Miscellaneous


Sakrijjalpanti Raajanah Sakrijjalpanti Panditaah.

Sakrittkannyaah Pradeeyante Treennyetaani Sakrittsakrit.

   The kings speak but once, so do the learned scholars. The daughter is gifted once. These three actions are performed just once. [The kings rarely repeat their order. Here ‘speak’ means to give orders. The voice of authority has to be listened with rapt attention, hence the utterance of the order only once is enough. The scholars give their observation, their opinion or their considered view point only once. Since, they speak after weighing all pros and cons, they speak less and do not repeat their; opinion or alter it. And gifting one’s daughter to a deserving groom takes place only once, which is still the practice prevalent in most of the traditional families in India.]


Ekaakinaa Tapo Dvaabhyaam Pathanaam Gaayanam Tribhi.

Chaturbhigaman Kshetram Panchabhirbahubhi Ranam.

   For chanting of Mantras (worships) just one, for studies two, for singing three, at the time of going out (on foot) four, for working in the field five and many persons are required in the war. [Worship is obvious performed best when one is alone. In the studies one companion help, in exchanging the notes and discussing the problems for the better comprehension of the lesson. In singing, the requirement of three person is essential for the accompaniment’s sake. If one sings, the other gives accompaniment on the rhythm instrument (tabla,etc.) and the third person for the maintenance of the desired notes on the taanpuras: When going out on foot, four persons are needed to watch the four directions for any possible mishap. In the field, one is needed to water the plants, the other to clear the field of the unwanted growth, third to guard it against any unwanted intrusion, four to sow the seed and fifth to arrange the soil and look after the general maintenance of the field. Obviously, in war many persons are required to fight.]


Janmamrittyurniyattyeko Bhunakkttyekha Shubhashubham.

Narakeshu Patattyekah Eko Yaati Paraam Gatim.

   A man comes alone in the world, meets his end alone; alone he bears the consequences of his good or evil deeds, alone he suffers the tortures of the hell and alone he attains to the ultimate state. [Despite a man being dubbedas a social being in all major activities of his life, he is all alone. This way he shares nothing with any body. Chanakya reminds us this bitter truth that in this transient world nothing is permanent, neither any companionship nor any association.]


Skloken Vaa Taddardhen Taddardhaaddardhaksharen Vaa.

Avanndhyam Divasam Kuryaad Danaadhyan Karmabhi.

   One should always think over any Shloka or half or part of it or even a letter of it. This way brooding over (the pithy), ancient saying, studying and giving elms one should utilise one’s each day. [Brooding over, reflecting on and studying the scriptures and the other wise sayings one should pass his day. This way not only his intelligence would be sharpened and analytical power would also get improve but he would also be away from the various devastating distractions. Thus passing his free time in studying for the self-benefit and giving elms for the other’s benefit, one utilizes one’s each day usefully.]


Shruttva Dharman Vijaanaatishruttva Tyajati Durmatim.

Shruttvaa Gyaanamvaapnoti Shruttvaa Mokshamavaapnnyaat.

   It is through hearing (the facts) that a man realises what is his real Dharma, and through hearing only that he gives up his ignorance (or stupidity). It is through hearing that he acquires knowledge and attain to the Moksha (final Liberation). [Man learns about his Dharma, gives up his evil mindedness (Durbudhi) and attains his final liberation only by listening to the wise teachings of his seniors, his Gurus, and other great persons. Chanakya says that these concepts cannot be attained by intuitive wisdom, but one learns about them from the external sources. Impliedly, he means that we all must listen to these wise teachings with rapt attention.]


Bhramannsampoojyate Raajaa Bhramannsampoojyate Dvijah.

Bhramannsampoojyate Yogi Stree Bhramati Vinashyatee.

   A roving king, a roving brahman and a roving Yogi are adored but a roving woman is doomed. [An efficient ruler is always on the move i.e. he is always gathering the first hand information to set his administration right. The subjects adore him for his ability to move about his State and solve their problems. A brahman lives in communion with eternity, hence he shouldn’t be attached to any particular place or person, for him the whole world is in the manifestation of the divine spirit. Practical interpretation of this aphorism would be that the more movement a brahman does, the more knowledge he acquires and hence he wins others adoration. The same is true with the Yogi. But if a woman keeps on moving, she exposes her to a variety of dangers, each being potent enough, in our society set-up, to bring her to disrepute, or the way to doom.]


Kaalah Pachati Bhootaani Kaalah Sanharte Prajaah.

Kaalah Suptesh Jaagarti Kaalo Hinduratikramah.

   Time devours the beings and destroys the creation. It remains active even when the beings are asleep. No one can check its incessant flow. [Time is all powerful and ever active. Its ruthless counting continues even if we may be asleep or not conscious. No one can check its flow. All are helpless before time.]


Gandham Suvarne Phalmikshudande

Naakaaripushpam Kalu Chandanasya.

Viddvan Dhanee Bhoopatideerghajeevee

Viddvan Dhanee Bhoopatideerghajeevee

Dhaatuh Puraa kiapina Bhuddhidoabhoot.

   Gold has no fragrance, sugarcanes have no fruits and the sandalwood has no flowers. A scholar is never wealthy and a king is never long aged. Why did this presciences was not given to Brahma (the creator). [All good things are not perfect. The best metal gold satisfies all other senses but has no fragrance. Similarly, sugarcane, the best stem, is fruitless and the sandal, the best wood has no flower. Chanakya says, had the creator been advised earlier, he would have made these minor deficiencies correct in order to bring his creation perfect. Impliedly, it also means that nothing is perfect in the world.]


Pitaa Rattnaakaro Yasya Laxamirasya Sahodari.

Shakho Bhikshaatanam Kuryaann Dattamupatishthati.

   He whose father sea is the mine of the precious gems, whose real sister is the goddess (of wealth) Lakshmi, that conch-shell has to resort to begging. What could be more anomalous than this? [Conch-shells are also produced by the sea. It is believed in the Hindu Mythology that the Goddesss Lakshmi originated from the sea. This way she is a sister to the conch-shell as both are produced by the same father sea. Sea is also supposed to be the place of origin of many a gem. The conch shells are otherwise worthless, barring their use in creating a peculiar sound: So building his full allegory, Chanakya opines with a touch of irony that even with such rich relations, the conch-shell has to survive begging.]


Sarvausheedheenaamamritam Pradhaanam

Sarveshu Saukhyaeshvashanam Praddaanam.

Sarveindriyaanaam Mayanm Pradhaanam

Sarveshu Gaatresu Shirah Pradhaanam.

   Among all the herbal medicines, the chief is Amrit (Gilory & a vary efficacious medicinal creeper); among all the pleasures’ the chief is partaking of food; among all the senses–sight (eyes) is the chief and among all the organs the chief is the head.]


Samaane Shobhate Pretee Raagyi Sevaa Cha Shobhate.

Vaanijjyam Vyavhaareshu Streedivyaa Shobate Grihe.

   Friendship among the equals and service to the king look good. It is befitting for the Vaishya (trader-class) to be in business and for a noble lady to be in the house (i.e. a noble lady’s presence makes the house look charming).


Guno Bhooshyate Roopam Sheelam Bhooshayate Kulam.

Siddhirbhooshayate Viddyaam Bhogo Bhooshayate Dhanam.

   Virtues enhance the beauty of the form; good manners enhance the glory of the family; perfection enhances the value of education and enjoyment enhances the pleasures of wealth.


Kokilaanam Svaro Roopam Naaree Roopam Pativratam.

Viddyaa Roopam Kshamaa Roopam Tapasvinaam.

   The beauty of the koel lies in its voice; that of the woman in her wifely faithfulness to her husband. The beauty of the ugly lies in their learning and that of the ascetics in the forgiveness.


Addhva Jaram Manushyaanaam Vijinaam Bandhanam Jaraa.

Amaithunam Jaraa Streenaam VAstraanaa Maatapam Jaraa.

   Travel ages a man, immobility ages a horse; a woman ages when not copulated with and a clothe ages when dried in the sun.


Moorkahanaam Panditaa Dveshyaa Adhnaanaam Mahaadhanaa.

Vaaraanganaa Kuleenaanaam Subhagaanaam Cha Durbhagaa.

   Fools nurse ill-will for the scholars, the pauper for the rich, the prostitutes for the noble-family-brides and the widows for the married woman with their husband alive.


Aachaarah Kulamaakhyati Deshamaakhati Bhaashanaam.

Sambhramah Snehamaakahyaati Vapuraakhyaati Bhojanam.

   Manners betray one’s family, and the language one’s country. Hospitality betrays one’s love and the physique betrays one’s food intake.


Abhyaasaaddhaaryate Viddyaa Kulam Sheelen Dhaaryate.

Gunen Gyaayate Tvaarya Kopo Netren Gammyate.

   Practice reveals one’s learning, demeanour the lingeage; the virtues reveal one’s quality and the eyes one’s anger.


Viddhyaarthee Sevakah Panthah Khulhartho Bhayakaataraah.

Bhandaaree Cha Pratihaaree Saptasaptaan Prabhodhayet.

   Wake the following seven up from the slumber (without any hitch): the student, servant, the traveler, the one stricken with hunger, the frightened person; the store incharge and the watchman. [i.e. there is no harm to wake these persons up even from the deep slumber as it is to their own benefit that they should be awakened.]


Ahim nripam Cha Shaardoolam Varaatam Baalakam Tathaa.

Parshvaanam Cha Moorkha Cha Saptasuptaann Bodhyatet.

   Do not wake the following up: snake, the king, the wasp, a child, other’s dog and the fool. They are better left sleeping. [They all becomes dangerous or disturbing when woken up from the deep slumber.]


Ikshudandaastilaah Shoodraa Kaantaakaanchanmedinee.

Chandanam Dadhi Taamboolam ardanam Gunavardhanam.

   Sugercane, sesamum seeds, menial worker of the low caste, wife, gold, earth, sandal wood, curd, betel leaf–the more they are rubbed the more their qualities improve. [Rubbing here includes griding, crushing, exorting maximum service, beating and pressing hard, etc., these may he suitably applied with the above mentioned objects.]


Daridrataa Dheertayaa Virrajate

Kuvastrataa Svachatayaa Virrajate.

Kadannataa Choshnatayaa Viraajate

Kuruptaa Sheetaltayaa Virrajate.

   Patience lends grace to even poverty; clean clothes haloes their quality; the stale food appears tempting when heated up and the good manners and behaviour hide even the ugliness.


Vrithaa Vrishtih Samudreshu Vrithaa Tripteshu Bhojanam.

Vrithaa Daanam Dhanaadhyeshu Vrithaa Deepo Divaapi Cha.

   Rains over the sea are useless, so is feeding to the well fed, giving alms to a rich man and burning a lamp in the day time.


Bhasmanaa Suddhyate Kaassaya Taamramammlen Shudhyati.

Raajasaa Suddhyate Nareree Nadee Vegen Suddhyatati.

   Bronze gets cleansed with the ash, copper with an acid; a women gets cleaned by menstruation and the rivers by their speedy flow.


Shuddham Bhoomigatam Togam Shuddhaa Naaree Pativrataa.

Shuchi Sschemakaro Raajaa Santoshee Brahamana Shuchin.

   The sub-teranean water, a faithful wife, the king looking after the welfare of his subjects devotedly and a content brahmans are always poius.


Vaacha Cha Mansaa Shauchmindriyanigrah.

Sarvabhootadaya Shauchmetachaucham Parmaarthinaam.

   The greatest piety lies in keeping one’s thoughts and speech pure in practising continuence, in showing mercy to all beings and in doing good to others.


Antargamalo Dushtasteeryasnaanshatairapi.

Na Shudh Yati Tatha Bhaandam Suryaa Daahitam Chata.

   Like the wine pot, which does not get purified even after burning it in the fire, so the malice from the heart of the wicked does not get remove even after repeated ablutions in the holy waters.


Ekodarsamuddhootaa Eknakshatru Jaatakaa.

Na Bhavanti Samaasheele Yathaa Badrikantakaah.

   Even if the womb of the origin and the birth-constellation be the same, two persons may still differ in their temperament and demenour, like, for example, the plum and the thorn. [The plum tree has the fruit and the thorns jutting out of the same branch. Despite their closeness they differ drastically.]


Deepo Bhakshayate Dvaantam Kajjalam Cha Prasooyate.

Yaddannam Bhakshayate Nittyam Jaaye Taadrishee Prajaa.

   The lamp the darkness and produces soot-power: It means one produces according to whatever one eats. [Chanakya says that the nature and behaviour of the progeny is very much dependent upon the intake of the progenitor.]


Annaad Dashgunam Pishtam Pishtaad Dashgunam Payah.

Payasoashtam Gunam Maansam Maansaad Dashgunam Ghritam.

   The flour gives ten times more strength than the ordinary cereal; milk gives ten times strength more than the flour; meat gives ten times more strength than milk but ghee gives ten time more strength than even the meat. [According to Chankya, ghee (or clarified butter) gives maximum strength to its consumer.]


Ikshuraapah Payaomoolam Taamboodam Phadamaushadham.

Bhakshayatittvaapi Kartavyaa Sanaandaanaadikaah Kriyaah.

   Even after having sugarcane, water, milk, roots, betel-leaf, fruits and (the herbal) medicines, one can perform the acts of self-ablution and worship, etc. [One can perform the holy acts of worship, etc., even after having these things specifically and not after having other things.]


Ajeerne Bheshajam Vaari Jeerne Tadd Balpradam.

Bhojane chamritam Vasri Bhojanaante vishpradam.

Bhojane chamritam Vasri Bhojanaante vishpradam.

   In indigestion water acts like a medicine. After digestion water gives strength (when imbibed). Drinking water during the meals acts like a nectar but if drink immediately after meals it acts like a poison.


Santoshaamritriptaanaam Yatsukham Shaantirev Cha.

Nacha Taddhanlubdhaanaamitshchetashcha Dhaavataam.

   The pleasure, which the persons content with the nectar of satisfaction, receive is inaccessible to those who hanker after money. [According to Chanakya, satisfaction is achievable through one’s bent of mind and not owing to any external factor. Whereas, those who hanker after money; never derive satisfaction, those with this bent achieve it easily.]


Trinam Brahamavid Svargam Trinam Sooransya Jeevanam.

Jimaakshyassya Trinam Naree Nihspihassya Trinam Jagat.

   The heavens to the knower of the supreme; life to a chivalrous warrior; woman to the continent man and the whole world to the desireless person appear as worthless as a straw.


Jale Tailam Guhyam Paatre Danam Manaagapi.

Praagye Shaastram Svayam Yaati Vishtaare Vastushaktitah.

   Oil (drop) on (the surface of ) water; a secret leaked out to wicked person; help to the deserving and knowledge to the wise spread (and swell) automatically.


Punarvittam Punarmitram Punarbhaaryaa Punarmahee.

Etattsarvam Punarlabhyam Na Shareeram Punch Punah.

   One may get money, friend, the (dwelling on the) earth again but not one’s body. [i.e., one can get everything again, in this world but not life. Since life is represented through a body, this term is being used symbolically.]


Doorasthoapi Nadoorasthoyo Yasya Manasi Sthitah.

Yoyassya Hridaya Naasti sameepasthoapi Dooratah.

   He who is inside one’s heart (figuratively) is not far away despite being distant. He who is not in one’s heart is very far off despite being close. [He whom we love, is never far away despite being distant and he, whom we don’t love, is very far away even if he be nearby physically.]


Prithivvaam Treeni Rattnaani annamaapah Subhoshitam Moodhai

Paashaankhandeshu Ratnasangyaa Vidheeyate.

   The real gems on this earth are three: food, water and kind words. Fools in vain call the pieces of stone as gems. [Food, drink and kind words are the most precious things on the earth which gratify the basic physical and emotional needs.]


Saddyaapraggyaam Haretundo Saddyah Praggyaa Karo Vachaa.

Saddhyah Shaktiharaa Naaree Saddyah Shaktakara Payah.

   Tunda (kundaroo) herb quickly destroys the intelligence, but vacha (a herb) revives it. Woman quickly depletes a man’s potency but milk immediately restores it. [Ayurveda also believes it that if a man drinks hot milk quickly after copulation, his strength gets revived.]


Shoken Rogaah Vardhante Payasaa Vardhate Tanuh.

Ghriten Vardha’e Veeryam Maansaanmaansam Pravardhate.

Ghriten Vardha’e Veeryam Maansaanmaansam Pravardhate.

   Sorrow aggravates diseases; milk nourishes body quickly; ghee enhances semen in the body and meat-eating only adds to the flesh of the body.


Ekvrikshe Samaaroodhaa Naanaavarnavihangamaah.

Prabhaae Dikshu Gaachahathi Tara Ka Parvedanaa.

   Many hued birds, seated on a tree, leave for different directions in the morning. What is there to grieve about? [All get separated in the world after meeting each other. Thus separation is the regular feature of the world. Why should this cause any grief?]


Geervaanvaaaneeshu Vishishtabudhi

Stathaapi Bhaashaantar Lolupoahamri.

Yathaa Surganeshvamrite Cha Sevite

Svargaaganaanaamdharaasave Ruchih.

   Despite my being versed in the Sanskrit language I want to learn other languages just as the gods, despite having nectar available, hanker for imbibing the juice of the Apsaras (divine dancers) lips.


Adhah Pasyasi Kim Baale Patitam Tav Kim Bhuvi.

Rere Moorkha Na Jaanaasi Gatam Taarunnyamauktikam.

   “Dame! what are you looking down for, on the ground?” ‘Fool! Don’t you know that I have lost the pearl of my youthfulness. [A comely girl bowed down her head, out of shyness, when she found a contumelious man gazing at her. The man asked: “What are you searching for, on the ground?” She replied, “Fool! I have lost the essence of my youthfulness.”]


Shaile Shaile Manikyam Mauktikam Na Gajegaje.

Saadhavo Maheem Sarvatra Chandanam Na Hi Vavevane.

   Every mountain does not have the gems nor every elephant’s head the pearl. Neither noble man are found everywhere nor sandalwood in every forest. [The pearl found in an elephant’s head was believed to be the pearl of the best quality in the ancient times.]


Mukham Dhannyam Tadevaasti VAdati Maduram Sadaa.

Klesham Harati Deenaanaam Vachanai Rasapooritai.

   Blessed is the mouth that utters sweet speech and by its kind and affectionate sentence (words) destroy the distress of the poor. [Meaning the sweet speech and kind words evanesce even the afflicted person’s distress.]


Netrete Eva Dhannye Ye Andhaanaam Maorgadarshake.

Rakshatah Kantakaakeerhaat Maargaattan Vishmaattathaa.

   Blessed are those eyes that guide the way of the blind and protect them from their straying on the thorn-ridden path. [The moral: the ‘haves’ must help the ‘have-nots’.]


Hastah Dhannye Ye Andhaanaam Maorgadarshake.

Rakshatah Kantakaakeerhaat Maargaattan Vishmaattathaa.

   Blessed are the hands that lend support to the helpless persons and help in solving their troubles.


Karnau Dhannyau Shubham Vaakyam Yaavaakarhayatah Sadaa.

Sajjanaanaam Cha sangattyaa Pibatah Vachanaamritam.

   Blessed are those ears that covet to hear the noble and auspicious speech and all the time imbibe the nectar of gentleman’s voice.


Paadau Dhannye Shubhe Maarge Chalatah Chau Nirantaram.

Kalyaanaaya Cha Jeevaanaam Uddyataubhavatah sadaa.

   Blessed are the feet ever eager to move on the path leading to everyone’s welfare.


Yathaa Vriksha Phalantyatra Pareshaamupakaarakaah.

Marah Tathaiv Sa Bhannyah Yasya Jeevanam.

   Like the trees growing their fruits for others’ benefit, blessed are those men who devote their life to the others’ cause.





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