Sutras of Chanakya


                  6. Sutras of Chanakya

1. Righteous conduct is the root of happiness. 

   The state and its ruler must know their Dharma (proper duty) since all its functions bring happiness when done according to proper knowledge of Dharma.

2. The root of Dharma is finance.

    A good financial health ensures proper discharge of the duties in a state.

3. The state’s welfare is rooted in good finance.

4. Control over the senses – the feedback from people – is the root of a state’s welfare. The state should formulate its policies according to the feedback it receives from the people with proper modification.

5. Humility is the root of the control of senses of a state. When the state authorities deal with people with humility they get proper and right response from the people.

6. The root of humility is in the service of the seniors – elderly or old persons. When one renders honest service to elders one learns the worth of humility.

7. By serving the old people (or elders) one gets the true knowledge.

8. True knowledge helps the king (or authority) discharge his duties more efficiently.

9. The king who knows his functions or duties well can rule better because he can control his activities judiciously. Hence he gets all prosperity.

10. He who controls his senses has his all wishes fulfilled. He gets wealth and prosperity in every way.

11. Prosperity of the king (the ruling authority) ensures prosperity of people, for if man is prosperous, nature also helps in his prosperity.

12. Even a rulerless kingdom works well if its people are prosperous. [That is, if even a state has no ruler, people if prosperous, can supplement this deficiency by their financial capabilities.]

13. The wrath of the Nature is the worst wrath.

14. It is better to have no king than a king who doesn’t know humility. [An inconsiderate king is worse than having no king.]

15. An able king can train his assistant into efficiency and then he can rule efficiently. [If the king is able he can get a team of his capable assistants and then he can rule well.]

16. Without good assistants a king can take no right decisions. [Meaning the king must be assisted by good assistants if he wants to take right decisions.]

17. A single wheel can’t move the chariot. [Indirectly, Chanakya says that alone a king can’t function well. He must get the support of his able cabinet. The king and his cabinet are the two wheels of the state-chariot.]

18. The assistant (or minister to a king) must help the master evenly in the latter’s weal and woe. [The assistant shouldn’t desert the master in latter’s misery.]

19. A thoughtful king must weigh pros and cons of a complex problem’s solution within mind before reacting his final decision.

20. Never make a head-strong person your close confidant no matter how dear he she may be to you. [A head-strong person can be provoked to spill outeven the closely guarded secrets. Hence however dear he she be, that person doesn’t deserve to be made a confidant by the king.]

21. A king should choose only a well-learned and of strong character person as his minister. A minister should have an open mind and unflinchable loyalty to his king.

22. Before starting any project (by the king), long deliberations are indispensable.

23. Success in the project is achieved only when the prior deliberations are held as closely guarded secrets.

24. Leakage of the state’s secrets will destroy the projects.

25. Callousness gets your secrets revealed to your enemy. [Hence the state must guard its secrets securely.]

26. State secrets must be guarded against any possible leakage. [Don’t let your state secrets be passed through any opening. Keep them closely guarded.]

27. Protection of the state’s secrets ensures its continuous prosperity.

28. (a) It is best to keep the state’s secret always closely guarded.

(b) Like in darkness the lamp shows the way, so in state administration when the king may feel darkness of confusion, his guide will always be wise deliberations (with his ministers).

29. The king gets the eyes-through deliberations with his cabinet to get a peep into his enemy’s weaknesses.

30. While deliberating upon the state affairs the king must not underestimate his cabinet’s advice or show adamance in forcing his views.

31. When the three sides [that of the king’s view, the advisor’s opinion and the minister’s suggestion] concur on one decision, the deliberations will surely be crowned with success in any state endeavour.

32. A minister is an able minister only if he can shift clearly through what needs to be done and what not.

33. A secret gets leaked if it falls into six ears. [The state secret must remain with only two persons: the king and the concerned minister. For if a third person – no matter how close – knows about it, it would be out in the open.]

34. A friend is a true friend if he maintains affectionate relations even during the period of your distress. [A friend in need is friend indeed.]

35. A group of friends makes one powerful. [A true friend is defined in the preceding sutra. Such friends group indeed makes one powerful.]

36. A powerful king or man tries to seek the impossible. Only a powerful king can afford to be audacious. Only then he tries to achieve something inaccessible so as to add to his strength and glory.

37. The lazy can’t get any impossible gain. [Since the lazy do not make any effort, it is impossible for them to get any inaccessible advantage.]

38. The lazy can’t protect even the advantage already received.

39. The lazy owing too their lack of efforts can’t ensure the growth of their assets.

40. Lazy kings do not even make their sevants work.

41. It is essential for a state to ensure four inaccessible gains: to get what it doesn’t have; to ensure its security after it is gained; to ensure growth in that asset thus gained; and to swap that gain with something more advantageous to the state.

42. The structure to formulate policy for the state should always be the part of the state-administration.

43. The structure for formulating the home-policy and foreign policy must be an intrinsic part of the state-administration.

44. Home policy must relate to the interior matters of the state.

45. Foreign policy relates to dealing with foreign countries.

46. Pacts and agreements/treaties with other countries is an endless affair. [The king must be aware of his pacts/treaties with foreign countries all the time. Only then can be derived advantage from them at the suitable time.]

47. The king’s competence is judged by not only his formulating apt policies but by also following them sincerely. [The king must not waiver from the policy he has once formulated. For this may tempt his ministers etc. to follow him and thus indiscipline will be bred in the state-administration.]

48. The countries at the border with which we have frequent skirmishes eventually turn our enemies.

49. Enemy’s enemy becomes our friend. [A common enemy makes even the hostile countries turn friends.]

50. One gets friends or enemies owing to some reason. [Friendship and enmity cannot emerge without any inherent reason.]

51. The weak must not delay in having a peace-treaty with the powerful.

52. The personal strength of two peace makers is the binding cause of a treaty. [When two countries have matching strength and influence, their treaty is a really long lasting treaty.]

53. If a piece of iron is not hot, it won’t join with other iron piece. [Two countries of matching strength can be bound by a long lasting treaty.]

54. The powerful should always attack the less powerful. [It is an obvious strategy. Any attack on the powerful will get you generally an adverse consequence.]

55. Never attack someone more powerful or even of matching strength. [One should be cautious of assessing one’s strength before starting an aggression. Keep postponing any armed conflict till one is ensured of an edge over one’s adversary.]

56. Fighting against more powerful enemy is like foot soldiers taking on the elephant brigade. It would be just a suicidal endeavour!

57. Collision of the two receptacle made of the raw earth results in fragmentation of both. [If two adversaries of immature strength fight with each other, both shall perish.]

58. Always keep on assessing the enemy’s endeavour. [One should always update oneself of one’s enemies activities through secret intelligence and other means. Never take enemy’s strength for granted.]

59. Even if you have a treaty or pact with the neighbouring country, still keep on knowing about its activities through constant surveillance.

60. Always monitor the activities of the enemy’s sleuths.

61. A powerless (or less powerful) king should seek the shelter of a powerful king.

62. Granting shelter to the weak gives much trouble and pain.

63. Seek a king’s shelter with abundant caution like one seeks the shelter of fire. [Fire may burn if you are not cautious and the king may punish if you are careless.]

64. Your behaviour should run counter to the king’s orders.

65. One must never be uncouthly dressed. [No matter what one’s position be, one’s dress must not appear to be an eye-sore to the observer.]

66. One must not copy king’s manners or his life style. [No matter how much money and pelf you may acquire, your wearing a crown will appear bodacious since it is king’s prerogative. A king has his royal style which a commoner shouldn’t adopt to.]

67. Always sow a seed of dissension between the persons nursing jealousy for you. [This Sutra also highlights the strategy of common sense.]

68. A person addicted to some drugs or vile habits can never progress no matter what he or she does. [Their addiction will prevent them from paying attention to the job they undertake.]

69. If a king is slave to his senses, he shall perish even if he commands a well-endowed army. [Any sensual weakness may nullify whatever advantage his strong army may gain for a king.]

70. Anyone addicted to gambling can never complete any of his or her project.

71. Those addicted to gambling lose their religious faith and wealth invariably. Addiction is such a compelling obsession that one may transgress one’s religious dictates and lose money in order to win one’s stake.]

72. Longing for amassing wealth is not an addiction. [Since it could be deserve of nearly all. All want to be rich!]

73. A lecherous person is good for nothing.

74. Harsh language scalds more than the fire-burn! [For the wound or injury caused by fire could be healed but not the wound caused by a caustic remark.]

75. A culprit should be punished by the judge according to the intensity of the crime committed by him and not out of any personal grudge. Such a judge will face the wrath of the people.

76. A king who is satisfied with his wealth has opulence and riches soon deserting him. [Though true with all, the statement is specially true for the kings. Kings are always in need of money for ensuring welfare and development of his kingdom. How can a king be satisfied with his wealth? The moment he gets complacent in his endeavours, the high demands on the exchequer would deplete his coffers signifying the exit of opulence.]

77. The existence of enemy depends on the policy of punishment. [The sterner be the policy of punishment, the lesser will be enemies. The converse is also true.]

78. A state protects its people by the judicious enforcement of the policy of punishment.

79. Proper punishment policy fills the royal coffers. [Proper punishment policy’s enforcement will ensure better administration and law and order situation, thus consequently boosting the state’s industry and trade.]

80. Absence of a proper punishment policy or penal code cause dearth of (good) Ministers in the state. [When the high positioned persons in a state have no fear of the penal code, they start indulging in reckless corrupt practices and not many are left in the cabinet to check them.]

81. Lack of proper penal code enhance unlawful activities in the state. [It is an obvious condition. When people have no fear of punishment they may indulge in unlawful activities with vengeance.]

82. Self-security (of the people) very much depends on the punishment policy in the state. [The sterner the policy the lesser will be the need for the self-security. Its converse is also true.]

83. Proper self-defence ensures everybody’s self security. [If the king is well guarded, its subjects will also be well guarded. Thus everyone will have proper security and all will be safe.]

84. Growth and decay is always in one’s own hands. [It is an obvious statement. Nobody can ensure any body’s growth if that person is destroying oneself. And if one is determined to grow nobody can cause that person’s destruction.]

85. The penal code (in the state) must be enforced with discretionary wisdom. [The state cannot blindly enforce the penal code. While punishing the criminal that person’s basic nature and past conduct must also be judged judiciously.]

86. Never dishonour even a weak king. [A king is not just a person but an institution for the state. Even if your king is weak he deserves honour because he symbolizes your state. Deshonouring him is tentamount to dishonouring your own country.]

87. Fire is never weak. [Even a tiny cinder can burn to ashes a huge jungle. Hence never disregard fire as weak any time.]

88. One’s punishment policy (or a king’s penal code) reveals one’s (king’s) own basic nature. [A cruel-minded king will have a ruthless penal code which a soft-hearted king will have a lenient punishment policy. Thus the punishment policy will also reveal the king’s basic nature.]

89. Gain is the basic aim of any endeavour. [All work to gain some kind of benefit which is the aim of every profession as well.]

90. The root of Dharma (religious belief) and Kama (satiation of desires) is Artha (some positive gain). [Note: Normally Artha in Sanskrit means meaning or purpose but Chanakya’s view was the Artha meant gain of any kind and not only financial gain. That is why his famous treatise on the Statecraft is titled ‘Arthashastra’, for Chanakya believed that every activity of a state should be aimed to get benefit for the kingdom – be it social, financial and even spiritual. In this Sutra’s context also, spiritual gain is the root of all religious practices and gain of physical satisfaction is the root of all desires.]

91. Money is the base of all the assignments.

92. With that gain (refer to the previous sutra) even with the less efforts one achieves one’s objective.

93. If one has dedication to find a clue to solve a problem, no problem remains difficult. [One must have dedication and determination to solve any problem. Then no problem will remain insolveable.]

94. If one attempts to solve a problem without any determination and dedication even what is achieved in the process also gets destroyed (or wasted).

95. For the industrious finding a clue to solution of a problem is a great help.

96. A work is completed if one is determined to do it. Then it becomes one’s sole aim.

97. Fortune favours the brave. [If one is determined to do a job, his fate follows him. That is, one gets support from even the divines agencies.]

98. God helps those who help themselves!

99. Fatalists get no job. [Those who wait for their luck to help them never get any work or employment to earn their livelihood.]

100. Before starting any job, weigh all the possible pros and cons and then decide your course of action.

101. Be not slack before the whole job is finished. [Lazing mid-way a work, one may not finish it well or timely.]

102. A fickle mind can never complete a job successfully.

103. Not using the available means properly interferes in completing the work.

104. Doing a work flawlessly is a rare happening.

105. One must not take up the job whose consequence is not ascertained before hand.

106. He who discerns the right time of doing a work gets sure success. [Every job has its specified or most opportune time to complete it. He who knows this invariably achieves success in doing it.]

107. Interference in the flow of time eventually makes the time nullify its results. [In any work, an order of time should be maintained. If done haphazardly, the lapsing time may nullify its result.]

108. In no work, even a moment should be wasted. [In doing a work, not even a moment should be overlapped. If you lose a moment in the beginning, you can’t replace with the extra moment in the end.]

109. Before doing a work its place and time must be found out. [Each work has its significance according to the place and time it is performed in. At one place or time it may be good while it may be harmful if done at other place and in a different time.]

110. An easy work becomes difficult for the unlucky person!

111. The wise must examine the contemporary situation of a country [before making their decision].

112. When begun after testing the consequence of a work, its results stay for long time with the performer. [He (or the king) who judges before hand the consequence of a campaign after testing its efficacy with respect to time and territory enjoys its results (or fruit) for a longer duration.]

113. All assets (wealth or riches) must be collected with all possible means. [A king who has to ensure welfare of his kingdom, must gather all sorts of resources with whatever means available, for he doesn’t know which may come handy at what time.]

114. Goddess of riches and resources, Lakshmi, parts company even with the lucky person who works without thinking beforehand the consequence of that work.

115. Knowledge and guess, both, must be used while examining the possible consequence of a job to be undertaken.

116. The job must be assigned on the basis of the expertise of its plausible performers.

117.  He who knows the tricks of the trade makes even the difficult job easy.

118. Any job accomplished by the ignorants (accidentally) must not be given any importance.

119. [The Sutra should be read in continuation of the previous one.] For even the woodworms can form various designs penetrating the wood accidentally, they can’t be held to be the artists at all. It is just by coincidence. The same way an ignorant fool can create something noteworthy but they shouldn’t be given any importance.

120. One must publicise only that work which is complete and successful. [Publicizing an incomplete job could tempt the opponents hurdle it mid-way].

121. The achievements of the knowledgeable or wise persons can also get sullied by the interference of fate or men.

122. One must face the natural calamities with a calm head (and not in panic or desperation). [The adverse acts of providence or the natural calamities – like earthquakes, floods, drought, Tsunami etc. – invariably create panic and desperation in the mind of the human sufferer which further aggravate the bad situation. One should try to be calm which dealing with such a situation.]

123. The difficulties in work borne by men should be solved with wisdom.

124. It is only fools who start the blaming game when they face any problem in their work. [Instead, they should try to root out the cause of the problem. But fools do exactly opposite. They start blaming each other which may further compound the trouble.]

125. Don’t be kind towards the harmful persons (involved in a job). [One should be a hard-task-master to the person not doing their job properly.]

126. Even a calf attacks on the udder of the mother cow when it wants milk. [The body-demands can even subdue the affection.]

127. Lack of sincerity in efforts goes to ruin the work [in hand].

128. The one who depends on luck never achieves success in his/her assignments.

129. Those who run away from their responsibilities are never able to nurture their dependents properly.

130. He who doesn’t see his work is verilly a blind person. [One must properly analyse all the aspects before starting a job. He who doesn’t do so is blind.]

131. One must examine the work and the ways of doing it with the help of directly or indirectly available methods and means while judiciously supplementing them with his thoughtful estimations.

132. [In continuation with the previous Sutra] For those who work without such thinking are always deprived by success and its additional gains.

133. When one finds problem arising in the work, one should examine all the aspects of it minutely to find the fault and remove it.

134. Start any work after assessing totally your capability for doing it.

135. He who feeds his close ones before feeding himself verilly partakes of ambrosia. [One must fulfill the needs of his close ones – friends, dependents and guests etc. – before fulfilling his own. Then he will be the most satisfied person.]

136. One must not leave any possibility of enhancing one’s resources/income. This will ensure his constant growth.

137. The cowards don’t care for their work or duties. [A coward is actually a work-shirker].

138. Those working under a master must know the nature of the master before devoting themselves to work. [The intelligent workers first assess the nature of their master – what kind of man is he; what he wants etc., and then decide how they should work.]

139. Similarly, he who knows the nature of cow enjoys her milk the best way.

140. Never share your secrets with some one lacking depth of character.

141. A soft-natured person gets insulted even by his dependents! [A soft-natured person is no asset in the state administration as his/her soft nature would tempt even his/her dependents/subordinates to defy or insult him or her.]

142. A king who punishes his culprits ruthlessly is hated by all his subjects. [In the state-administration if a ruler is cruel or sadist, he is unlikely to get any favour from his subjects. On the contrary he will be the target of their hatred.]

143. (In continuation of the previous Sutra). Hence the king must punish the culprit judiciously. [Extra hard punishment may make the ruler the butt of his subjects’ hatred and extra leniency may make the culprit rather over audacious. Hence the punishment must be just and appropriate.]

144. A frivolous scholar doesn’t command respect of the people. [A scholar is expected to be serious and solemn and not frivolous particularly before the people.]

145. Extra burden of work make the man unhappy and worried. [The king should assign as much work to his assistants as the later is competent enough to finish his normal capacity.]

146. He who points out other’s flaw in the people’s court or parliament, draws people’s attention to his own inefficiency. [In the people’s court the topic of discussion should be confined to the flaws in the system of governance rather than on the individual’s inefficiency. He who does so, in fact lowers the stature of that august court.]

147. The anger of those who are not aware of their own capabilities eventually goes to destroy themselves. [The anger of fools eventually damages their own interest].

148. Nothing is inaccessible or unachieveable for those who are endowed with the wealth of truth. [It is an indirect way of asserting that truth makes you achieve all that you want to; for sticking to truth is the greatest wealth in this fey world.]

149. Alone courage is not enough to achieve success in one’s mission. [Courage is necessary but unless one has knowledge and resources, one is not likely to achieve one’s objective.]

150. He who is addicted to vices fails to achieve his objective. [An addicted fellow has his vision clouded by the need of his pet drug which gains the prime importance and not the achievement of the objective. Indirectly it is asserted that the addicted person shouldn’t be entrusted with any important responsibility.]

151. One must finish one’s job at due time because any delay may not let one complete it at all!

152. The destruction in present is better than destruction in future. [Perish in what you know to be certain destruction than perish in a prolonged confusion. In other words, dying fighting in a battle field is better than accepting defeat and later dying at the scaffold!]

153. Discrimination towards other’s wealth (or property) is selfishness. [If you have other’s wealth in your possession, guard it as if it is your own. Don’t discriminate between yours and other’s wealth. For that discrimination gives rise to selfishness.]

154. Charity is religion. [Charity is the essence of the religious faith by the Hindu scriptures. But this charity ought to be shown to the deserving person without any arrogance on the donor’s part.]

155. The uncivilized persons longing for wealth spells doom for human life. [The love for money among the ignorant may set a wrong trend, which many influence even the knowledgeable person. And this blind love for wealth may lead to destruction for the human life as this is quite infectious.]

156. That resource which doesn’t add to one’s religious faith, is purely an endeavour to satiate one’s carnal desires.

157. (In continuation of the previous Sutra) The money that one may get through wrong means is actually no money in reality. [The money earned through illegal means gives one no financial strength as the ill earned money gets spent in the wrong ways only. For example, money earned through gamble may be spent in drinking liquor or in womanizing etc.]

158. A man of simple nature is a rare commodity among men. [Since the people are generally of vile nature, they don’t let a simple hearted man survive in society. But if such a man manages to survive, obviously such a man will be very rare.]

159. He who does not accept the wealth given by an insulting manner is a real saint. [The real good man or saintly person is he who never cares for wealth and riches even if it is thurst upon him. Any opulence offered to him through an insulting manner is totally unacceptable to him.]

160. Even if one has a single bad quality, it shall nullify all his other good qualities. [A rotten apple injures all its companions.]

161. A great man never relies on other’s help while doing a courageous act.

162. One must not violate one’s basic characteristics.

163. A hungry lion would never eat grass. [Both the Sutras : the previous one and this one are inter related. Previous Sutra is explained by a glaring example in this Sutra.]

164. One must protect one’s faith even at the cost of one’s life.

165. He who is given to back-biting is eventually forsaken by one’s own wife and son. [Back-biting or criticizing someone at one’s back is a vile habit. Even one’s close ones can’t tolerate it for long.]

166. Even children should be fed on meaningful information. [Chanakya says that even the children should be reared on meaningful talks and not on flimsy or fantastical stories. Tell them only such stories as have some useful information.]

167. If truth be unpalatable or disturbing one’s faith, it should not be said. [If any revelation of truth may create disturbance in the listener’s faith, it shouldn’t be told before that person.]

168. If a virtuous person has a few bad qualities, discard him owing to those flaws. [Existence of the minor flaws do not make a virtuous person discardable. Neglect his flaws  but embrace his virtues.]

169. Even the learned persons can make mistakes.

170. (In continuation of the previous Sutra) Even the most precious gem can have some flaws. [Like the wise may have some weaknesses, the same way the most precious gem may have some flaws.]

171. Never rely on a person known to transgress the limit of virtues. [Never rely on a person who violates the rules of law or social norms.]

172. Even a favour done by an enemy can be harmful! [For that favour can prove to be your undoing later on.]

173. An appliance for drawing water from a well ruins the water by repeatedly bowing down. [Even the bowing of the mean is a forerunner to their intention of looting or deceiving you. So be wary of their showing any respect to you.]

174. Never violate the opinion of the gentlemen. [Gentlemen’s opinion conveys their life-long experience truthfully. Hence it should never to violated.]

175. Staying with the virtuous makes even the virtue-less person virtuous. [A good company has its indelible impact.]

176. The company of milk makes even water as good as milk. [The thought of the previous Sutra is exemplified here through the mixture of water with milk.]

177. Even raw earth (or soil) if it remains in touch with flowers produces fragrance.

178. Silver becomes gold when mixed with gold.

179. A fool acts foul with even those who do him/her good.

180. A sinful person is not afraid of ill-fame.

181. Courageous persons overpower even their enemies. [Even if the courageous persons face powerful enemies, they overpower them merely by their dominant courage.]

182. A king becomes rich with his valourous attitude.

183. There is no present or future for a lazy person.

184. Absence of enthusiasm ruins even his own fortune (bestowed by God).

185. Dire into water and draw out benefits like a fisher. [Enter unto troubles fearlessly if one wants to convert a problem into an opportunity.]

186. Never rely on someone who is a known betrayer.

187. Poison is poison in all circumstances.

188. While collecting money leave the enemies out.

189. Never trust your adversaries while endeavouring to achieve your target.

190. Every relationship is linked with some common advantage (to be achieved).

191. Protect the son of even enemy if he becomes your friend. [Since you and your enemy-king’s son’s objective is common – removing that king from the throne – treat his son as your friend.]

192. Keep your enemy deceived by your artificial behaviour till you find his weaknesses.

193. Attack on the weakness of your enemy. [That is, your strategy should be to first find your enemy’s weaknesses and attack on them.]

194. Never disclose your weakness to anyone.

195. Enemies always targets your weaknesses. [Hence don’t get them revealed at all.]

196. Never rely on enemy even when you have captured him/her.

197. Try to remove the flaws in your close one’s character. [Because these flaws make your  defence penetrable.]

198. Strong-willed (or character) persons get saddened when their close ones are insulted. [Insult to the close ones creates wound in the heart of the strong-willed persons because that belittles their reputation.]

199. One feels agony even if one part of one’s body has some defect.

200. Only good or noble habits win the enemies.

201.  mean fellow is ever troublesome for a noble man.

202. No advice should be given to the vile persons. [For they’ll never heed to it.]

203. Therefore, such persons (mischief mongers) should never be relied upon.

204. Even if honoured, a mischief-monger will only give trouble. [Hence such person should never be honoured, no matter whatever be their value!]

205. The forest five burns even the priced wood like sandalwood etc.

206. Never insult a noble man.

207. Never make a pardonable person [i.e. he whose folly is pardonable] sad.

208. Only fools reveal the secrets told to them by their masters in privacy.

209. Affection is revealed not by words but by action. [Love doesn’t need words to reveal itself since lover’s gestures and actions reveal it automatically.]

210. Opulence’s effect is revealed by [the compliance of] its order.

211. Fools give trouble to even their benefactors.

212. The impatient persons perish even when coming in great wealth and opulence. [Since their impatience would make them indulge so recklessly in pleasure that their health would be severely damaged and in consequence they shall die.]

213. The impatient persons have no present or future. [No present because he would be too reckless in ruining his health and no future for he may not survive for long.]

214. Always avoid company of the rogues.

215. Even milk is unacceptable if given by a drunkard. [Be wary of the apparently noble gesture of a bad person.]

216. Intelligent persons detect their benefit even amdist crisis. [If you have intelligence, you’ll convert a crisis also into an opportunity and derive some benefit for yourself.]

217. Frugal diet is the key to good health.

218. If heavy food causes dyspepsia avoid taking even easily digestible food.

219. Properly disgested food causes no illness.

220. Never neglect even a minor ailment in the weak or emaciated body.

221. Eating any food in dyspepsia cause trouble.

222. Disease is more dangerous than enemy.

223. Donation should be made according to once’s capacity.

224. It is only the cunning and greedy persons who try to be extra intimate for no apparent reason.

225. Greed clouds one’s intelligence.

226. If one has many jobs in hand, do that first which fetches maximum benefit.

227. Revise the wrongly done job by you or others personally. [Never trust a wrongly done job to any one else but check yourself.]

228. Fools are by nature foolhardy.

229. Never bandy words with fools.

230. Converse with fools in their own language.

231. Iron gets cut by iron only. [Behave with fools the way they behave.]

232. Fools have no friend.

233. One must follow one’s Dharma in this world. [When all follow their Dharma the human society rests in peace.]

234. Even the ghosts and spirits follow their Dharma. [Not only in this world, even after death one must stick to one’s Dharma in observing obsequies, last rites etc.]

235. The birth place (root) of Dharma is compassion (for others).

236. An honest donation is the root of Dharma.

237. He who follows his Dharma truthfully scores victory in all his worldly endeavours. [Since he remains firm on his faith, he gets honour from everybody and faces no trouble in discharging his worldly duties as well.]

238. Even death protects such a person sticking to his faith firmly. [As he gets renown even after his death.]

239. However those who act contrary to this dictate [that is, who don’t stick to their faith] spread sin and cause great dishonour to Dharma.

240. Impending doom is conveyed by Nature’s indications.

241. When one acts contrary to one’s religious tenets, it indicates impending self-destruction.

242. Never disclose your secrets to a back-biter.

243. Never try to know other’s secret. [The previous Sutra and this Sutra are both in fact complementary to each other.]

244. The master must not be over-friendly with his or her subordinates, as the later, then, would behave quite contemptuously, crossing the limits of propriety.

245. One should not insult or show contempt to one’s closeness.

246. Desert your mother even, if she is wicked or rogue.

247. Cut off even your hand if it is inflicted with poison. [Like the important part of your body should be cut off if afflicted, the same way get rid of the rogues from society, no matter how close or dear they may be to you.]

248. If a stranger is your well-wisher, treat him or her like your sibling.

249. Even the dried jungle can give you a herbal medicine. [If you can get something that heals you from even the most unexpected or wretched source, get it without any hesitation.]

250. Never rely on the thieves.

251. Never ignore your enemy even if he appears indifferent. [One should never ignore one’s enemy no matter how indifferent he (or she) may pretend to be; for cloaking under the indifference he may be lurking his sinister designs.]

252. Even a minor addiction can give you trouble (some time).

253. Amass wealth deeming oneself to be immortal. [Chanakya says that one must amass wealth sparing no efforts. Don’t slacken your efforts thinking that you may not survive long to enjoy it.]

254. The whole world respects the wealthy (or resourceful person).

255. The world doesn’t respect even a king if he has no wealth (or resources).

256. Suffering poverty is like dying even though you are alive.

257. Money can make even an ugly person good looking.

258. The beggars won’t spare even a miserly or stingy moneyed man.

259. A scion from an aristocratic family with no money is better than a moneyed man from a lowly family.

260. A mean person is not scared of his insult.

261. Skilled persons are not afraid of losing their livelihood.

262. Those who have control over their senses are not afraid of their indulgence in sensual delights.

263. The righteous have no fear of death.

264. A gentleman deems everyone’s wealth as his very own. [That is, a gentleman never allows any wealth to be wasted and preserves it as if it belongs to him only. The idea is that he who has anyone else’s wealth in one’s possession must guard it as if it is his own.]

265. One should never covet other’s wealth or opulence.

266. Greed for other’s wealth is the root of one’s doom. [He who covets other’s wealth eventually causes his doom because in that lust his all activities will be centred on other’s wealth. He may not do something by his own effort. And such a man has no holds barred for stooping low. Thus he creates his passage on his own fall.]

267. One shouldn’t steal even the smallest amount belonging to others.

268. Usurping other’s wealth or property (or money) is a sure way of destroying one’s own money. [For a thief can’t remain free forever. And when he is caught he would not only be forced to surrender the stolen wealth but shall be compelled to pay punishment etc., which may finish all the money he has, eventually.]

269. It is better to die than indulge in stealing.

270. One can survive by eating only a meal of parched grain power (Sattoo). [Hence one shouldn’t covet for other’s money.]

271. A dead man needs no medicine.

272. Ensuring one’s supremacy in a peace-time itself becomes the ever-lasting objective.

273. The mean-minded ever use their education in the sinful activities.

274.  Feeding a snake on milk will only enhance the poison in it and shall not create any nectar. [Making the mean strong will not purify their character. Only their meanness will be further augmented.]

275. There is no wealth like having food-grains. [Since eating food is the ultimate necessity for survival, having food-grain is the ultimate wealth.]

276. There is no deadlier enemy than facing hunger.

277. To die of hunger is writ large in the destiny of the work-shirker, lazy persons.

278. Nothing is uneatable for a hungry man.

279. (Over) Indulgence in sensory pleasures expedites the onset of the old age.

280. He who is considerate to his servants weal and woe really deserves their services.

281. The servant of a tough (inconsiderate) master serves his master as though someone is trying to set fire in the wood by throwing on them the tuff glow-worms (instead of the fire-lings). [That is, serving a heartless master is akin to trying to set fire by using glow-worm on the wood. Like this is a futile attempt, so is servant’s service to a heartless master.]

282. One must always seek shelter of a considerate and sensitive master.

283. A man ages fast if he copulates more.

284. A woman ages fast if she doesn’t indulge in copulation.

285. A matrimonial alliance must be between the persons of matching status and nature. A man with lofty ideals must not marry a mean-minded girl.

286. Copulation with a woman of prohibitive category makes a man lose fast his age, glory and the merits of youth.

287. Arrogance is one’s greatest enemy.

288. Never show your anger on your enemy at a public conference. [Public display of one’s emotion on any individual is not correct as it shifts the focus of the conference to personal issue from an issue of public interest.]

289. Hearing derogatory things about one’s enemy gives much pleasure.

290. A pauper lacks wisdom.

291. No body listens to a wise advice given by a pauper. [A pauper commands no respect even though he (or she) be very intelligent or wise. Hence no one cares for his advice, no matter how sane he is.]

292. A money-less person gets insulted by his own wife. [Since such a person is unlikely to provide funds for running the house, he will have to face frequent insult from his wife.]

293. Bees desert even a flowerless mango tree. [Here flowerless means it has no hope of getting any fruit.]

294. The wealth of the paupers is their education (or knowledge).

295. Thieves can’t steal one’s education (or knowledge).

296. Education (knowledge) spreads one’s fame.

297. One’s fame never gets destroyed.

298. He who comes ahead for other’s benefit is the real man.

299. That knowledge which teaches one to keep one’s senses under control is the real knowledge.

300. When evil spreads, that knowledge which teaches to control one’s senses, shows its dominance.

301. The knowledge of the mean should never be accepted.

302. The language of the Mlechchha (barbarians) should never be learnt. [Because it is a language full of vile vocabulary.]

303. The good qualities of the barbarians can be adopted (in one’s life-style).

304. Never be lazy in learning (or adopting) good qualities.

305. The good qualities of an enemy should be taken (or adopted).

306. If even poison has traces of nectar, it should be taken from it.

307. One gets respect due to one’s position. [One gets position in society due to doing one’s duties well which in turn gives one respect.]

308. A man is adored by the qualities he possesses.

309. Always try to maintain your best behaviour.

310. Never transgress your limits.

311. Man is such a gem which can not be evaluated. [Man is a bundle of infinite qualities. No one knows when they would glow. Hence his real worth cannot be evaluated in worldly terms.]

312. Nor there is anything as precious as a woman is. [She is also an incomparable gem.]

313. It is indeed rare to get a precious gem. [Impliedly a real man and woman are rare gems.]

314. Ill-fame is the deadliest fear (for a man). [What hurts most a genuine man is infamy. This is the dealiest fear for such persons.]

315. A lazy or callous man can never learn scriptures.

316. An effeminate man (or a man ever hankering after women in his lust) can never hope to complete any religious duty or go to heaven.

317. Even a woman abhors an effeminate man.

318. A man desiring to get flowers never irrigates a dry plant.

319. Doing a job without any investment of money is tantamount to trying to squeeze out oil from sand. [That is futile.]

320. Never make great persons the butt of ridicule. [That is, always treat them with honour.]

321. The indications of doing a job give the advance information about its eventual success or failure.

322. The asterisms or planets can also predict about failure or success in the contemplated job.

323. But the one desirous of getting success in one’s effort quickly doesn’t wait for examining the position of asterisms or planets.

324. Mere introduction doesn’t reveal one’s flaws or deficiencies.

325. He who is himself impure, worries most about others impurity.

326. One’s basic nature cannot be altered.

327. The awarded punishment must commensurate with the committed crime.

328. The counter-comment must conform to the basic remark.

329. One must wear dress or ornaments according to his opulence level.

330. One’s character must conform to the level of reputation of his clan.

331. Efforts must measure according to the need of the job undertaken.

332. Donation must be made according to the need of the receiver.

333. One’s dress must befit his age.

334. The servant must always follow the order of his master.

335. The disciple must always follow his (or her) mentor’s commands.

336. A wife must behave according to her husband’s desires.

337. A son must always be obedient to his father.

338. Observance of excessive formality engenders suspicion (about the observer’s true intentions).

339. An employee must follow the employer’s demands.

340. A child punished by his mother weeps only before her. [A child never complains his mother’s behaviour before anyone because he never doubts the sincerity of his mother about his well-being.]

341. Even the wrath of the well-wishers (like parents or the Guru) is always laced with affection. [Because they act hard to have the weakness in their ward or child’s behaviours duly rectified.]

342. Only a fool concentrates on finding faults in others and not in his own self.

343. The scoundrels serve others with dishonest intentions.

344. [In continuation to the previous Sutra] The scoundrels show their services through offering gifts the master specially likes.

345. The display of extra formality by the well-known person evokes a (genuine) suspicious. [Why must a well-known person show such excessive formality?]

346. An irritable or foul-tempered cow is better than having a thousand dogs (at one’s gate).

347. Today’s pigeon is better than having a peacock of tomorrow. [This is akin to the English proverb: one in hand is better than two in the luck.]

348. Extra affection breads weaknesses. [It is akin to the English proverb: familiarity breads contempt.]

349. He who controls his anger totally wins over everyone.

350. Express your anger only after the wrong doer expresses his anger at being exposed. [Let the wrong-doer first come up with resentment (or anger) at being exposed, then you must show your anger. This way you’d not let him find any excuse to escape.]

351. Never bandy words with the wise, fools, friends, mentor and master.

352. Opulence is not devoid of evils. [With extra opulence or money, some evils do creep in. Hence, one must be cautious about them.]

353. The rich never (selflessly) contribute in noble work. [For they always seek their financial gain in whatever they do.]

354. Those who depend upon vehicles (for their movement) never exert to walk on foot. [And this way, they never get the benefit of walking on foot.]

355. A wife is an iron-less chain (round the husband’s feet). [Getting a wife entails many duties and hence a man doesn’t remain totally free anymore.]

356. He who excels in a particular field must be given a job of that field only.

357. Scholars deem a rogue wife to be a constant cause of sorrow.

358. (Hence) Examine the potential wife with utmost care.

359. Never trust a woman (even in the least). [The implied meaning is directed towards bad or characterless women.]

360. Women in general lack in being versed in social etiquette and discretionary wisdom.

361. One’s mother is one’s best teacher.

362. Take care of your mother in all conditions devotedly.

363. Outward decoration hides one’s erudite knowledge. [Outwardly well decorated scholar doesn’t seem what he is owing to the distracting ornamentation of the person. Chanakya says that a scholar shouldn’t be so decoratively dressed.]

364. Shyness or modesty is the jewel of women.

365. (Knowledge of the) Vedas represent intelligent brahman’s jewel.

366. Dharma is the real jewel of everyone. [He who knows his duties and responsibilities well is like a real gem in the society.]

367. Always stay in a country (or place) free of riots and anarchy.

368. The really dwellable country is that which has majority of noble men.

369. One should always be afraid of one’s king.

370. For no deities is more adorable than the king. [As the king is the top deity.]

371. The royal wrath is a strong fire that burns the evils of even a far-off region.

372. Never go to your king with empty hands. [That is one must always carry gift for one’s king.]

373. Never also go to your Guru or temple of the deity with empty hands.

374. Never bear a grudge for the royal family.

375. Visit the royal family regularly. [Maintaining the contact with the royal family has a lot of hidden advantages.]

376. Maintain cordial relations with the royal personages.

377. Never increase intimacy with the royal maid servant.

378. Never look in the eyes of the king while standing before him.

379. A virtuous scion of a family makes all his family members happy. [An able son of the family makes its all members live happily due to his achievements. (However, this is true with only joint family system).]

380. (Hence) One must make his son well-versed in a variety of fields and subjects.

381. Sacrifice a village for ensuring a region’s or country’s welfare.

382. Sacrifice a family for ensuring a village’s welfare.

383. Begetting a son brings the best blessings.

384. He is the real son who protects his parents from all troubles.

385. An able son brings glory to the entire family.

386. A son-less person is denied the entry into heaven. [This is an old Indian belief.]

387. She who gives a son is the real wife.

388. The king must go to that queen (following her productive period) who has given him a son.

389. One loses one’s potency if one copulates with a woman under menstruation.

390. Never throw your seed into a field which is not yours.

391. The women are meant to produce son.

392. Having sex with your maid servant is tantamount to becoming their servant.

393. The onset of doom doesn’t let the potential victim heed to any advice.

394. Pain and pleasure (or woe and weal) go hand in hand in the life of the mortal beings.

395. Like children follow their mother, so do pain and pleasure follow the mortal beings.

396. A gentleman deems a mole-like obligation as big as a mountain. [A gentleman always recognizes an act of gratitude and also tries to repay it ten times more than its real wroth.]

397. Never oblige a mean person. [For he or she will never even deem it to be an obligation.]

398. A mean person never deems an obligation to be a favour. On the contrary, such act makes him or her your enemy. [Because it hurts his or her ego.]

399. A gentleman doesn’t feel satisfied till he has repaid even a smallest obligation.

400. Never dishonouor (or insult) the deities.

401. There is no light better than the light which makes eyes see things.

402. Eyes are the leader of the body of the mortal beings. [It is eyes that guide man. Without them nothing can be seen. Hence, they guide the life of mortal beings in this way.]

403. A body is useless without the eyes. [Without eyes one can’t do his own work.]

404. Never piss while in water. [This way you pollute the water and makes it unusable by others. Hence never piss while in water.]

405. Never enter water naked.

406. As is one’s body, so is one’s knowledge. [Deem here the body as the society and you as its member. One gets the knowledge as one’s society is constituted. Consequently if you are robust you have a lot of knowledge; if deprived of knowledge you will have an emaciated body.]

407. One’s opulence or prosperity is directly proportional to one’s knowledge. [Here knowledge means the worldliwiseness. The more worldliwise you are, the more riches you will get.]

408. Never add fire to (the raging) fire. [That is, don’t fuel one’s anger all the more. Never treat an angry man with more wrath. Treat him calmly. Anger is like fire. Hence don’t add fire to the raging fire.]

409. Ascetics are always adorable. [Ascetics are those that renounce the world and do penance which make them very pious and pure. Hence they should be adored.]

410. Never have sex with woman who is not yours.

411. Donation of food grain to a hungry person is the greatest donation or act of charity and killing a being in the embryo form is the most heinous crime. The merit of the former form of charity nullify the sin in the later form of crime. [That is, both the acts – charity of food grains and causing foeticide– just balance each other. Impliedly if one has committed foeticide, one can’t get over this stigma by donating food grain to a hungry man.]

412. Religion or knowledge of Dharma is very much part of the Veda teaching. [The dictates of our Dharma also have their origin in the knowledge of the Vedas. Dharma is not learnt from other sources; it is the Vedas which define Dharma.]

413. One should act according to one’s Dharma [if not always than] at least occasionally. [Although one should always act according to one’s Dharma, yet if it is not possible for some reason, at least for some time one should do it, so that one knows what is one’s basic duties and responsibilities.]

414. Honest conduct ensures one’s place in heaven. [He who is honest and truthful, not only gets honoured in the world but also get the best dwelling place post-death.]

415. No penance is more merit-bestowing than honestly following truth.

416. Sticking to truth is the sure means to gain heaven.

417. Truthfulness makes the world servive. [The orderliness of the world owes its stability to adherence to truth only. Because truth makes the human society survive and progress.]

418. Truthfulness makes even the deities happy.

419. No sin is more deadlier than speaking lies.

420. Never criticize your seniors or elders [like your Guru and parents].

421. Never accept any wicked means to achieve your aim. [Follow always the noble path, come what may.]

422. The wicked have no friends. [No one wants to befriend wicked persons because the wicked have no consideration for any one.]

423. The paupers get no relief in traversing their worldly life. [For them every minute’s survival is an ordeal.]

424. A man indulging in charity is really the brave man. [Because in charity you sacrifice some of your necessities to make the needy one happy. This is surely an act of highest bravery.]

425. Have devotion to your Guru, Deity and Brahmans. This type of devotion is the crown-jewel of all devotions.

426. Humility is the crowinging virtue of all.

427. A polite but a person of low origin is better than an impolite person of an aristocratic family. [Birth in any family is the act of God. You have no control over your birth in any family – well known or ignoble. But after birth you can and must develop humility in your character so as to get admiration of your society.]

428. Age and fame get enhanced by good conduct. [Your good conduct will no doubt make you famous; you will also enhance your health because good conduct also help you to remain fit and healthy.]

429. The idea which is soothing to listen but not good in practice should not be uttered.

430. Don’t follow one and desert many. [This is the basic concept of democracy which Chanakya avers. For many can’t be wrong while one may be.]

431. Enter into no partnership with dishonest or crafty person.

432. Even if they be lucky, don’t maintain relationship with crafty persons. [No matter how they are favoured by their luck, any association with the crafty persons will give you only bad name. So avoid their company even if a possible prosperity in their association may tempt you.]

433. Always attempt to root out loan, enemy and diseases. [For even if a trace of those survives, it may develop into a major trouble. So don’t let them survive at all.]

434. The elixir for a man’s life is affluence and prosperity. [Physical comforts and financial security make one remain fit and healthy as they act as an elixir.]

435. A beggar (or some one begging for some favour) should not be insulted (or shown contempt to).

436. A mean-minded person, makes an expert suffer by putting before him a very difficult job. [The mean always try to trouble the others. They trouble them also who try to work good results for the former. The mean never care to admit anyone’s superiority and always try to belittle others achievement.]

437. There is no place except hell (to go) for an ungrateful person. [Ungratefulness is such a sin that an ungrateful has nowhere to go but hell.]

438. One’s development or destruction depends very much upon one’s tongue (or speech).

439. One’s tongue (or speech) can be the source of poison or nectar. [For if one is guarded in his speech, one will get nectar; if not, then poison.]

440. A man with a sweet tongue has no enemy.

441. Even the gods become happy with a prayer (or their praise).

442. Even the baseless foul remark remains long in one’s memory.

443. Allegations must not be made against the king.

444. Those who love the pleasure of listening sweet notes get satisfied with the cooing of the cuckoo.

445. Gentlemen’s behaviour reveals the purpose of their religious faith. [For example if the purpose of any faith is helping others, the real followers of that faith will reveal it through their behaviour.]

446. Excessive love for money gives one no glory. [Like the misers who love their money excessively are generally denounced by their society.]

447. Good-luck (remaining married with husband alive) is the best jewel for women.

448. Even the enemy’s source of income shouldn’t be destroyed.

449. That place should be one’s home/place of stay where the source of water be available without much effort. [In a tropical country like India water is very essential for survival. If one has to make extreme efforts for getting it, there is no sense in staying at that place.]

450. Never invite the wrath of an elephant (the powerful) on getting the support of an Eirand (a weak-tree). [Inviting the wrath of the powerful on the support of a weak ally is not prudent.]

451. No matter how old is the ‘Saal’ tree, it can’t be used to tie an elephant to it. [A ‘Saal’ tree is normally quite sturdy and strong but when withered with age it can no more be used to tie an elephant to it.]

452. No matter how big be an Okander tree, its wood can’t be used to make a hammer. [Mere size can’t ensure the quality of the contents.]

453. Even excessive glowing can’t turn a glow-worm into a fire-fling.

454. Excellence doesn’t always give birth to good qualities. [An excellent player doesn’t necessarily become a good man.]

455. No matter how old be a neem-tree, it cannot be used to make a nut-cutter. [Although neem-tree’s wood is very strong which turns stronger with age, it can’t become iron which is needed to make a nut-cutter!]

456. One reaps as one sows. [If you plant a Babool tree, you can’t get mango from it.]

457. One’s intelligence is conditioned by what one listens. [Reared in an atmosphere resonating with abuses, you’ll never chant holy shlokas.]

458. One gets his character in accordance with his family traits.

459. No matter how much a neem-tree ripens, it can’t turn into a mango tree.

460. Don’t forego the available pleasure in the hope of enjoying a bigger one in future. [For no one can be sure of it in future as ‘there are many a slip between the cup and the lip.’]

461. A man himself invites his misries.

462. Never wander aimlessly during night. [Gentle persons should not do so. It is the habit of rogues and whores.]

463. Don’t go to sleep at mid-night. [If one goes to sleep at mid-night, one may not get up at the day break and this way one’s whole schedule for the day will be disturbed.]

464. Talk to the scholars for knowing about God.

465. Don’t enter other’s house without any reason.

466. People commit crimes knowingly.

467. Social conduct is governed by the scriptural knowledge.

468. Where scriptural dictates are absent, follow social manners/customs.

469. Scriptures don’t get precedence over social customs.

470. Through his intelligence network, a king can seen (or examine) a thing lying far away.

471. People behave after seeing other’s behaviour. [People generally have a repeatative mentality. They love to follow blindly rather than think and chart out their course of action. But those who use their brain while observing other’s behaviour generally get greater success in their endeavours.]

472. Never criticize (or censure) the one on whose favour depends your survival or earning.

473. The essence of all penances is exercising control over your senses.

474. Redemption is an impossibility if one falls in the attraction of woman. [Chanakya repeats here an old classical belief of India. Salvation is an impossibility if one falls in the clutches of a woman’s charms.]

475. [It is in continuation of the previous Sutra] For women are the root of all evils.

476. A woman cannot judge the qualities of a man.

477. Women are (generally) fickle minded.

478. Who remain away from bad habits never fall a prey to women.

479. Those who are versed in the knowledge of the Vedas know the consequence of any yagya (sacrifice or action).

480. One’s position in heaven is not eternal. [One may get a place in heaven as the consequence of one’s meritorious deeds yet, that position is not eternal. Because when that effect is over, one has to again come back to the mortal world.]

481. Fall from heaven gives one extreme sorrow. [Hence one must keep on doing good deeds even if one has attained heaven. Only then one’s stay in heaven can be prolonged. Otherwise one will have to fall from heaven which is a very painful experience.]

482. A living being never wants to quit his body even if he is offered the Indra’s position in heaven.

483. Final emancipation (Nirvana) is the panacea of all worldly miseries.

484. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.

485. Harsh and unpleasant words can even destroy families.

486. No happiness is greater than caressing one’s own son.

487. In no discussion or altercation should one forget one’s religious dictates.

488. Plan your course of action at the end of the night (that is at dawn). [Because at dawn your mind will be fresh and alert.]

489. Don’t indulge in sex at the day break (with your wife).

490. Facing the doom one resorts to unjust measures.

491. What will a man, desiring milk, do with a female elephant? [He would like to have a cow or buffalo which can give him milk he likes. The comparison between a female elephant and a cow highlights the fact that a huge elephant will be of no use when one desires a tiny milk of cow.]

492. There is no favour/obligation like indulging in charity.

493. Never desire impatiently for a thing gone in other’s possession.

494. Ill-earned money gets consumed in the ill-company.

495. The (bitter) neem-fruit is eaten only by crows (bad persons).

496. Sea-water cannot quench the thirst.

497. Sand also follows its defined conduct. [Even the most useless thing like sand has its own way of showing its behaviour. Thus, even most insignificant man has his own life.]

498. The saintly persons never enjoy the company of the rogues.

499. (Like) A swan can’t enjoy in a cremation ground.

500. The world works for serving its financial gains (or money). [The entire world has one driving force for work – money.]

501. Hope holds the world together. [It is hope which links everybody to the world and this way world remains a world.]

502. Wealth does not stay with a man who only hopes but doesn’t make efforts to get it.

503. One can’t be patient if he hopes all the time. [Those who only hope but don’t make any effort to fulfill it, are prone to ever growing impatience.]

504. Death is better than suffering poverty.

505. Those who keep on hoping (callously) only are devoid of shame. [They have no inhibition].

506. A son should not stay alone with even his mother.

507. One should not praise one’s own self. [‘Self-praise is no recommendation’ – the same thought is emphasized here.]

508. No one should sleep during day time. [Day time is meant for working. Only the callous, lethargic, work-shirkers sleep during day time.]

509. A man blinded by the lust of money doesn’t listen to sane advice.

510. No deity is greater than her husband for a woman.

511. Both (husband and wife) must act accordingly if they want happiness. [It is in continuation with the previous Sutra. Which the husband should be the ultimate God for a women, the husband also deem his wife as a unique gift of God. If they live with this relationship they will always be happy.]

512. Give as much respect to a guest at your home as much is possible. [It is highlighting the old Indian belief that a guest is a God and should be adored with all possible means.]

513. No noble act [whether offering made at a sacrifice for a noble cause or even education imparted to a deserving disciple] goes waste and unrewarded.

514. An enemy appears like a friend when your wisdom or vision is clouded.

515. (Then) The sand of a desert may appear like waving water (when the vision is clouded).

516. The fools love the books giving untrue advice. [The fools are tempted to read those books that are full of untruth.]

517. The company of the pious/noble men (Saints) makes one dwell in heaven.

518. The noblemen consider others as equal with themselves. [That is, the noblemen do not treat anyone inferior or superior to them. They treat all as equal.]

519. Good qualities reflect on one’s physical appearance. [Face is one’s heart’s mirror. Good or bad qualities reflect on one’s face.]

520. Good place is that where one gets happiness.

521. A treacherous person never gets liberated (from his or her guilty conscience).

522. One shouldn’t sorrow on his misfortune.

523. The noble men deem their dependent’s problems as their very own.

524. The mean hide their true emotions and never reveal their true feelings.

525. A man sans intelligence is like a wretch.

526. Never go on a way you get no support. [One should never take a way where one may get no help or support.]

527. One should never praise his son on face. [For such a praise may turn him complacent and arrogant].

528. (But) The servants should always praise their master.

529. The servants should give sole credit to their masters under whose instructions they perform the holy rituals.

530. The royal order should never be violated.

531. It (the royal order) should be obeyed devotedly .

532. The wise have no enemies.

533. Never reveal your weakness before anyone.

534. A forgiving person gets praise from all.

535. Save money to protect yourself from distress.

536. Work is dear to daring person.

537. Do tomorrow’s work to-day only. [Don’t postpone your work.]

538. [Try to] Complete the afternoon’s work in the morning itself.

539. Acting in conformity to one’s social norms is tantamount to adhering to one’s religious faith. [For Chanakya always maintained that the social norms and the religious dictates always concur.]

540. One who knows the world knows all.

541. One who has the scriptural knowledge but no worldly knowledge is like a fool. [Again the fact is being emphasized that the scriptural dictates and social norms must concur.]

542. [For] The purpose of the scriptural knowledge is to find the actual knowledge of all things.

543. Work enlightens one about the real knowledge.

544. Never have a discriminatory behaviour.

545. [For] One’s social conduct is more important than one’s religious faith.

546. One’s soul is the [sole] witness of one’s conduct.

547. One’s soul is the universal witness. [One can’t hide his own action from his soul. It is present everywhere.]

548. [Therefore] Never be a false witness.

549. [Those who appear as] The false witness goes to hell.

550. The five elements also witness the hidden acts of sin.

551. One’s soul always reveals to his own acts of sin. [That is, one can’t hide his sin from his soul.]

552. One’s character is identified by his behaviour.

553. Human behaviour is reflected by his face. Even the deities can’t hide it.

554. Save your wealth from the royal-men and thieves. [The royal men or agents can always pounce upon you to take their share – due or undue. Hence they are as dangerous as thieves.]

555. The king rarely seen often destroys his subjects. [Because in accessibility to his presence deprives his subjects from conveying their grievances. Hence an indifferent king causes his people’s downfall.]

556. The king easily accessible to his subjects keeps them happy.

557. A just king is deemed like a mother by the subjects.

558. Acting this way (as explained in the previous Sutra) such a king enjoys all pleasures of this world and gets heaven after his death.

559. Non-violence is the basic tenet of every religious faith.

560. Holy men deem their body as though it is not their own. [Because they use it invariably for other’s welfare.]

561. Eating meat (flesh) is bad for all.

562. The wise persons are not afraid of the world. [Because they know that it is fey and transient.]

563. [Because] The lamp of their scientific knowledge removes the fear of the world.

564. Everything (in this fey world) is mortal.

565. Because all sins and merits are committed by this body which essentially a store house of urine and faces, hence why must one has love for this body?

566. Sorrow is the end result of every birth and death.

567. Hence one must always try to go beyond this birth-death cycle.

568. Only penance (or holy deeds) can make one attain heaven.

569. He who is forgiving by nature enhances the firmness in his penance.

570. [With these measures] One achieves success in whatever he does. [Who is forgiving by nature, firm in his faith and committed to his penance eventually gets success in his every endeavour.]





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